Long-term study investigates risk factors for short dental implants
ANKARA, Turkey: The use of standard dental implants has become a widely accepted treatment modality for the rehabilitation of complete and partial edentulism. However, in severe alveolar resorption, standard-length implant placement is not possible without additional surgical intervention. For such cases, the use of short implants is considered a major contribution to the field of implant dentistry. Now, a recent study has determined the risk factors for short dental implant survival.
The study, conducted by the Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University in Ankara, the Cumhuriyet University in Sivas in Turkey and a private dental practice in Ankara, aimed to identify the different implant- and patient-related risk factors for long-term short dental implant success. Through a retrospective chart review of three centres, patient information regarding demographic variables, smoking habits, history of periodontitis and systemic diseases, and medications was collected. In addition, information was gathered relating to the parameters for short implant placement, including implant manufacturer, design, anatomical location, diameter and length, and type of placement.
For the statistical analysis, univariate regression models were used at implant and patient levels. A total of 460 short implants—ranging from 4 to 9 mm in length—placed in 199 patients and followed up for up to nine years were reviewed. Survival rates of the short implants were 95.86 per cent and 92.96 per cent and success rates were 90.00 per cent and 83.41 per cent for implant- and patient-based analysis, respectively. Peri-implantitis was reported as the cause of short dental implant failure in 73.91 per cent of the cases. Univariate regression models revealed that the female sex was strongly related to short implant success. In addition, smoking and a history of periodontitis were found to have a significant negative influence on short implant success at the implant and patient levels.
These results support the use of short implants as a predictable long-term treatment option; however, smoking and a history of periodontitis are suggested to be the potential risk factors for short implant success. According to the researchers, these outcomes are consistent with the findings of other long-term studies.
The study, titled “Risk factors associated with short dental implant success: A long-term retrospective evaluation of patients followed up for up to 9 years”, was published online in Brazilian Oral Research on 11 April 2019, ahead of inclusion in an issue.